best Autophagy Type for Longevity
Autophagy is the essential component of caloric restriction-induced life extension[xvii],[xviii]. Autophagy dysfunction increases aging and disease[xix]. Autophagy-deficient mice and yeast do not live longer despite ingesting fewer calories, but adequate autophagy permits these effects to occur[xx],[xxi]. So, autophagy is probably necessary for lifespan, but which one is supposedly the best?
The mitochondrial theory of aging, which holds that aging occurs due to the decrease in mitochondrial function[xxii], is one of the major theories of aging. Your lifestyle and surroundings cause mitochondrial damage throughout your life, causing them to become dysfunctional and accumulate reactive oxygen species[xxiii].
Macroautophagy is the primary mechanism by which cells clean themselves and remove reactive oxygen species. Mitophagy is the process by which damaged mitochondria are removed. Sirtuins, such as SIRT1 and SIRT3, are essential for macroautophagy to function via NAD metabolism[xxiv].
Calorie restriction, exercise, fasting, heat exposure, and ketosis are all ways to activate sirtuins[xxv][xxvi][xxvii]. Sirtuins are also linked to circadian rhythms. Therefore adequate sleep and daily rhythm alignment are required[xxviii].
Immunity’s Favorite Type of Autophagy
The extensive roles of autophagy in immunity are referred to as ‘immunology.’
[xxix]. It regulates thymic function, antigen presentation, lymphocyte homeostasis, T-cell regulation, cytokine generation, inflammation control, and survival in both the innate and adaptive immune systems[xxx][xxxi].
Xenophagy is the process of degrading foreign microbial invaders[xxxii]. It discusses how bacteria and viruses are broken down and spoiled via autophagy. The autophagy of virions is known as virophage. Both can aid in removing infectious pathogens, but they can also be thwarted by viruses[xxxiii].